Archive

Archive for the ‘CPI’ Category

Summary of My Post-CPI Tweets (May 2020)

Below is a summary of my post-CPI tweets. You can (and should!) follow me @inflation_guy. Or, sign up for email updates to my occasional articles here. Investors, issuers and risk managers with interests in this area be sure to stop by Enduring Investments!

  • Once again CPI day, and unlike last month where expectations were very low, it seems people think they have a firmer grasp of inflation this month. Ha!
  • I suppose that’s relative, but while I think there will be some interesting stories today I wouldn’t read much into the near-term data. Some things we know will be happening just aren’t happening yet.
  • Some examples include hotels, food away from home, rent of residence, medical care…all of these have serious upward pressures going forward, but not clear today.
  • I’ll talk about these as we go today. The consensus forecast for core is -0.2%, dropping y/y core to 1.7% from 2.1%. Last April – so sweet, so long ago – was +0.198% on core so ordinarily we’d be expecting a small y/y acceleration today.
  • But remember that last month, median inflation was pretty much normal. All of the movement in core was in lodging away from home, airfares, and apparel.
  • I don’t know about apparel, but I doubt the other two have fallen as far this month. Surveys of used cars, another typical volatility source, have plunged though. Usually takes a couple months for that to come into the CPI, but with a big move like that, it might.
  • On the other hand, prices for medical care were virtually ignored in the survey for last month’s release. If they start surveying those more ambitiously, that’s going to be additive. No question in the medium-term, medical care prices are going up.
  • Rents will be very interesting. So, if someone skips a rent payment how the BLS treats it depends on whether the landlord expects to collect it eventually, some of it, or none of it.
  • Rent-skipping isn’t yet unusually prevalent, and the threat that Congress could declare a rent holiday will mean that NEW rents are definitely going to be higher (this is a new risk for a landlord). Remember it’s rents that drive housing inflation, not home prices.
  • Neither effect is likely appearing yet, but be careful of that number today. In fact, as I said up top, be careful of ALL of the numbers today!
  • In the medium-term, inflation is lots more likely than deflation because there is much more money out there chasing fewer goods and services (20% y/y rise in M2, better than 50% annualized q/q). But today?
  • And while no one will be surprised with a low number today, almost everyone would be shocked with a high number. But with a lot of volatility, a wider range of outcomes in BOTH directions becomes possible.
  • In other words, HUGE error bars on today’s number, which SHOULD mean we take it with a grain of salt and wait for a few more numbers. Markets aren’t good with that approach. OK, that’s it for the walk-up. Hold onto your hats folks. May get bumpy.
  • Core CPI fell -0.448%, meaning that it was very close to -0.5% m/m. The y/y fell to 1.44%. The chart looks like a lot of the other charts we’re seeing these days. But of course devil will be in the details.

  • Core goods -0.9% y/y from -0.2%; core services 2.2% from 2.8%.
  • CPI for used cars and trucks, coming off +0.82% last month, turned a -0.39% this month. That’s not super surprising. I suspect going forward that rental fleets will shrink (meaning more used cars) since most cars are rented from airports.

  • Lodging Away from Home again plunged, -7.1% after -6.8% last month. That’s a little surprising. In my own personal anecdotal observation, hotel prices in some places went up last month, although to be fair that’s forward. TODAY’S hotel prices are still being discounted.
  • However Primary rents were +0.20% after +0.30% last month. Y/Y slid to 3.49% from 3.67%. Owners’ Equivalent Rent was +0.17% vs 0.26% last month; y/y fell to 3.07% from 3.22%.
  • I would not expect any serious decline in rents going forward. It’s housing stock vs number of households, and if we’re trying to spread out that means MORE households if anything. Also, as noted earlier I expect landlords to raise rents to recapture ‘jubilee risk.’
  • Apparel was again down hard, -4.7% m/m. That’s not surprising to me. Transportation down -5.9% m/m, again no real surprise with gasoline. But Food & Beverages higher, up 1.40% m/m. That’s not surprising at all, if you’ve been buying groceries!
  • Still some oddness in Medical Care. Pharma was -0.13% m/m, down to +0.78% y/y from +1.30% last month. Doctors’ Services -0.08%. Both of those make little sense to me. But hospital services +0.50% m/m, pushing y/y to 5.21% from 4.37%. That part makes perfect sense!
  • Hospital Services Y/Y. Expect that one to keep going up. Overall, of the 8 major subsectors only Food & Energy, Medical Care, and Education/Communication were up m/m.

  • Core ex-housing fell to +0.6% y/y, vs +1.45% last month. That’s the lowest since…well, just 2017. The four-pieces chart is going to be interesting. As I keep saying though, the real story is in 2-3 months once things have settled and there’s actual transactions again.

  • Little pause here because some of the BLS series aren’t updated. I was looking at the -100% fall in Leased Cars and Trucks…and the BLS simply didn’t report a figure for that. Which is odd.
  • …doesn’t look like a widespread problem so we’ll continue. A quick look forward at Median – there’s going to be more of an effect this month but going to be up by roughly +0.15% depending on where the regional housing indices fall.
  • That will drop y/y median to 2.70% or so from 2.80%. You’ll see when we look at the distribution later, this is still largely a left-tail event. The middle of the distribution is shrugging slightly lower. Again, it’s early.
  • Biggest core category decliners: Car and Truck Rental, Public Transportation, Motor Vehicle Insurance, Lodging Away from Home, Motor Vehicle Fees (sensing a trend?) and some Apparel subcategories.
  • Only gainer above 10% annualized in core was Miscellaneous Personal Goods. But in food: Fresh fruits/veggies, Dairy, Other Food at Home, Processed Fruits/Veggies, Cereals/baking products, Nonalcoholic beverages, Meats/poultry/fish/eggs.
  • Gosh, I didn’t mention airfares, -12.4% m/m, -24.3% y/y. Some of that is jet fuel pass through. But it’s also definitely not going to last. Fewer seats and more inelastic travelers (business will be first ones back on planes) will mean lots higher ticket prices.
  • The airfares thing is a good thought experiment. Airlines have narrow margins. Now they take out middle seats. What happens to the fares they MUST charge? Gotta go up, a lot. Not this month though!

  • I’ll take a moment for that reminder – people tend to confuse price and quantity effects here, which is one reason everyone expects massive deflation. There is a massive drop in consumption, but that doesn’t mean a massive drop in prices.
  • Indeed, if it means that the marginal price-elastic buyer in each market is exiting long-term, it makes prices more likely to rise than to fall going forward. Producers only cut prices IF cutting prices is likely to induce more buyers. Today, they won’t.

  • 10-year breakevens are roughly unchanged from before the number. If anything, slightly higher. I think that’s telling – they’re already pricing in so little inflation that it’s getting hard to surprise them lower.
  • 10y CPI swaps, vs median CPI. Little disconnect.

  • Little delay from updating this chart. OER dropped to the lowest growth rate in a few years. But it’s not out of line with underlying fundamentals.

  • To be fair, underlying fundamentals take a while to work through housing, but lots of other places we’ve seen sudden moves. The only sudden move we have to be wary of is in rents if Congress declares a rent holiday.
  • Under BLS collection procedures, if rent isn’t collected but landlord expects to collect in the future, it goes in normally. If landlord expects a fraction, that is taken into effect. If landlord doesn’t expect to collect, then zero.
  • …which means that if Congress said “in June, no one needs to pay rent,” you’d get a zero, massive decline in rents…followed by a massive increase the next time they paid. That would totally muck up CPI altogether, and I would hope they would do some intervention pricing.
  • So that’s a major wildcard. To say nothing of the huge effect it would have on the economy. Let’s hope Congress leaves it to individual landlords to work it out with tenants, or at worst there’s a Rental Protection Program where the taxpayers pay the rent instead of the tenant.
  • OK time for four-pieces charts. For those new to this, these four pieces add up to the CPI and they’re all between 20% and 33% of the CPI.

  • Piece 1: Food and Energy. Actually could have been worse. Energy down huge, Food up huge (+1.5% m/m). But this is the volatile part. Interesting for a change as energy is reversing!

  • Piece 2, core goods. We went off script here. But partly, this is because the medicinal drugs component is lagging what intuition tells us it should be doing.

  • I said offscript for core goods. Here’s the model. We were expecting to be back around 0% over the next year, but not -1%.

  • Piece 3, core services less rent of shelter. This was in the process of moving higher before the virus. Medical Care pieces will keep going higher but airfares e.g. are under serious pressure. Again, I think that’s temporary.

  • Piece 4: rent of shelter. The most-stable piece; this would be alarming except that a whole lot of it is lodging away from home. I’ve already showed you OER. It has slowed, but it will take a collapse in home prices to get core deflation in the US. Doesn’t seem imminent.

  • Last two charts. First one shows the distribution of price changes. Most of what is happening in CPI right now is really big moves way out to the left. That’s why Median is declining slowly but Core is dropping sharply. It’s the tails.

  • And another way to look at the same thing, the weight of categories that are inflating above 3% per year. Still close to half. MOST prices aren’t falling and many aren’t even slowing. Some, indeed, are rising. This does not look like a deflationary outcome looming.

  • Overall summary – much softer figure than last month, but still pretty concentrated in the things we knew would be weak. A few minor surprises. But for us to get a real deflationary break, another big shoe needs to drop.
  • With money supply soaring and supply chains creaking, any return to normal economic activity is going to result in bidding for scarce supplies with plentiful money. You already see that in food, the one thing it’s easy to buy right now. That’s the dynamic to fear when we reopen.
  • And, lastly. I’ve made the point many times recently: inflation hedges are priced so that if you believe in deflation you should STILL bet on inflation because you don’t get any payoff if you’re right about deflation.
  • That’s all for today. Stop by our *new* website at https://enduringinvestments.com and let us know what you think. It needed a facelift! Good luck out there.

I think the key point this month is the point I made up top: we always need to be wary of one month’s data from any economic release. It’s important to remember that the release isn’t the actual situation, it’s a measurement of the actual situation and any measurement has a margin for error. All of these data need to be viewed through the lens of ‘does this change my null hypothesis of what was happening,’ and if the error bars are large enough then the answer almost always should be ‘no.’

However, markets don’t usually act like that. Although there’s not a lot of information in the economic data these days the markets act like there is. (I was, however, pleased to see the TIPS market not overreacting for a change.) Let’s look at this data for what it is: right now, the one thing we know for sure is that it’s hard to buy anything at all. Economic activity is a fraction of what it was before the lockdowns took effect – but that affects economic quantities transacted (GDP), not prices. We need to get back to something like normal business before we know where prices are going to reach equilibrium. From these levels, my answer is that in most cases the equilibrium will almost assuredly be higher. I think most consumer-to-consumer services are going to end up being a lot more labor-intensive, which is good for labor’s share of national income but bad for prices: declining productivity shows up in higher prices. And there’s lots more money out in the system. While some of this is because companies drew quickly on their bank lines lest those lines be pulled like they were in 2008-2009, a great deal of it is because the government is spending enormous sums (a lot of it helicopter money) and the Fed is financing that by buying the debt being issued. So while M2 growth probably won’t end up at 20% y/y for a long period, I think the best we can hope for is that it goes flat. That is, I think the money is here to stay.

Monetary velocity is falling, and in fact the next print or two are going to be incredibly low. Precautionary cash balances ballooned. But once the economy opens again, those precautionary balances will drop back to normal-ish and the money will still be there. It’s a cocktail for higher inflation, to be sure. The only question is how much higher.

Over the next few months, the inflation numbers will be hard to interpret. What’s temporary, and what’s permanent? Keep in mind that inflation is a rate of change. So hotel prices have plunged. Gasoline prices have plunged. But unless they continue to plunge, you don’t have deflation. You have a one-off that will wash out of the data eventually. If hotel prices retrace half of their plunge, that will be represented by a m/m increase from these levels. Airfares will end up higher than they were before the crisis, but even if they didn’t they’d likely be higher from here. The real question is whether the one-offs spread much farther than apparel/airfares/lodging away from home. So far, they’ve spread a little, but not a lot. We’re nowhere close to deflation, and I don’t think we’re going to be.

Summary of My Post-CPI Tweets (April 2020)

Below is a summary of my post-CPI tweets. You can (and should!) follow me @inflation_guy. Or, sign up for email updates to my occasional articles here. Investors with interests in this area be sure to stop by Enduring Investments (updated site coming soon).

  • CPI Day! I have to be honest – with the markets closed and this number likely to not have a lot of meaning, I almost skipped doing this this morning. But, thanks to M2, lots more people are suddenly listening so…obviously CPI is starting to be important. So let’s try.
  • The consensus for today, to the extent “consensus” means anything, is for -0.3% headline and +0.1% on core. But these are even more guesses than usual.
  • The BLS stopped taking prices a couple of weeks ago. That will have less effect than if that had happened a few years ago, b/c they ‘survey’ some prices using database downloads from retailers e.g. apparel.
  • But it still means that we don’t know what they’ll do about missing prices. Normally the BLS imputes an estimated figure for an item based on similar items…but if whole groups of items or categories are missing, less clear. Do they assume zero? Prior trend?
  • I actually think that this number won’t have too many of those problems but there will be some and next month will be very odd – and some chance they don’t publish at all because they can’t get statistically significant data.
  • In the meantime…remember we are coming off of recent strong data. Core was 2.37% y/y last month, and in general has headed higher. Before this, I was expecting 2.5% core by summer. Now that will take longer! (You can imply the word “maybe” before every statement this month.)
  • Lodging Away from Home is one place we’ll surely see an effect this month, and airfares, but beyond that who knows. And we are dropping off a weak +0.16% from last March so the core y/y figure might even stay steady. Or it could drop 0.3%. Who knows.
  • What we DO know is headline inflation is going to fall and in a month or 2 will show negative changes, which will prompt “DEFLATION!” screams. But headline just follows gasoline. That’s important – it’s also the reason people think infl is related to growth. Only headline.

  • I doubt we’ll get very close to core deflation in this cycle. See my recent article Last Time Was Different for why I don’t think we’ll see similar effects. But mkts are priced for long-term disinflation and deflation.
  • Oh and of course yesterday’s M2 chart. Probably discuss that more later today. Anyway, I’d say good luck but with markets closed you can’t do anything anyway! So just “hang on” and we’ll try and figure this out over the next few months.

  • I will be back in 5 minutes with thoughts on the figures and diving as deep as I can this month.
  • Core -0.1% m/m, down to 2.1% y/y. That’s a bigger fall than expected, but with these error bars I wouldn’t be shocked. Normally missing by 0.2% on core is a big deal. More interesting is that they got headline right to within 0.1%! It ‘only’ fell -0.4% m/m in March.
  • Here are the last 12 core CPI prints. This chart is gonna look kinda wacky for a while.

  • Broadly, core goods were -0.2% y/y, a decline from flat. More amazing is core services, dropping to 2.8% y/y from 3.1%.
  • Haha, that core services number is EVEN MORE AMAZING than you think. Because it didn’t happen from Owners Equivalent Rent (+0.26% m/m, 3.22% y/y) or Primary Rents (+0.30% m/m, 3.67% y/y). Both slower y/y but basically same m/m from Feb.
  • So if rents didn’t decelerate, where do we get the big drop in core services? Lodging Away From Home was -6.79% m/m, dropping to -6.38% y/y from +0.78% last month. I should drop the second decimal.
  • BTW, good time to remember that VOLUMES of transactions don’t enter into CPI monthly. This is just a survey of prices. So if no one bought any apparel, but we have a price, that’s what gets recorded. Lodging fell because prices actually were down hard, as you probably know.
  • CPI for Used Cars and Trucks was +0.82% m/m. Some people were worried about autos but I’m not sure they should be. Big supply shock in cars because of parts supply chain. If I were a dealer I wouldn’t be marking down my existing inventory.

  • Airfares -12.6% m/m. That’s worth about 0.1% on core all by itself. So we expected big declines in airfares and Lodging Away from Home (worth about 0.06%), and got them. Core ex- those two items still had some softness, but not horrendous.
  • Core ex-housing declined from 1.70% y/y to 1.45% y/y. Again, a lot of that were those two items I just mentioned. But 1.45% core ex-housing is still higher than it was last July.
  • Now, in medical care I’m not sure how to think about any of this. Medicinal Drugs were -0.04% m/m, after -0.43% last month, pushing y/y to 1.31% from 1.85%. But lots of drugs are really hard to get right now and of course we now know most of our APIs come from China.
  • That may be a case of some shortages, because in the short term no one wants to be seen jacking up the price of drugs. Prescription drugs decelerated y/y; non-prescription accelerated.
  • Physicians’ Services +0.34% m/m vs +0.21% prior month. Hospital Services +0.40% vs -0.12%. How in the heck do you measure this when most of those doctors and services are doing one thing? And a very crucial one indeed. What’s the price of a hip replacement right now?
  • OK, biggest m/m changes down, other than fuel. Public Transportation -65% (annualized), car/truck rental -58%, Lodging Away from Home -57%, Infants/toddlers apparel -41%, womens/girls apparel -30%, footwear -29%.
  • Which makes me realize I forgot to mention Apparel was -2% m/m. That’s another 5bps off the core inflation rate.
  • There were still some increases on the month. Biggest ones other than food were Tobacco and Smoking Products (12.5% annualized), nonalcoholic beverages (+12%), and Used Cars and Trucks (+10%).
  • FWIW, the early look to me is that MEDIAN CPI will still be around 0.22% or so. That’s what long-tail negatives do to core! So while y/y Core dropped sharply, y/y median will still be around 2.8%.
  • So, coarse but…core -0.1% m/m. Add back 0.06% lodging, 0.10% airfares, 0.07% apparel and 0.07% for public transportation (cuffing it) and you get back to +0.2%. Which means that outside of those categories there wasn’t much disinflation pulse. Median will say same thing.
  • That probably more means that prices haven’t really reacted yet that that there will be zero impact of COVID-19. But I don’t think we’ll see a big impact lower on prices. At least not lasting very long.
  • Haven’t done many charts yet. But here’s one I haven’t run in a while. Distribution of y/y price changes by low-level item categories in the CPI. Look at that really long tail to the left. Take off just the last bar on the left and you get 2.37% core roughly.

  • Here’s the weight of categories over 2% y/y change, over time. Just another way of saying that we haven’t seen any big effects yet. Unknown is just how much the trouble in collecting affects this.

  • Pretty good summary and gives me more confidence in the data – they’re at least calling people! But interestingly, not so much doctors/hospitals. So asterisk by Medical Care.
  • BLS has posted this, explaining how they’re collecting prices. https://bls.gov/bls/effects-of-covid-19-pandemic-on-bls-price-indexes.htm#CPI
  • So let’s do the four-pieces charts and then wrap up. For those new to my monthly CPI tweets, these four pieces add up to CPI, each is 20%-33%, but each behaves differently from a modeler’s perspective.
  • First piece: Food and Energy. This will go much lower. As I said up top, we will be in deflation of the headline number pretty soon. But, I think, only the headline number.

  • Core goods. This declined a tiny bit, mostly apparel. I think the short-term effect here is indeterminate but might actually be higher as some goods made overseas get harder to get (ibuprofen??)

  • Here’s where the rubber meets the road. Core Services less Rent of Shelter. Was in a good trend higher and about to be worrisome. Dropped a bit, but with an asterisk on medical care.

  • Rent of Shelter – this looks alarming! And rents declining is the ONLY way you can get core deflation. But…Rent of Shelter includes lodging away from home. That’s the dip, is in that 1% of CPI. The 31% that is primary and OER, not so much.

  • That last chart calls for one more on housing. Here is OER, the biggest single piece of CPI. It’s right on model. As yet, no sign of any big effect from COVID-19 either now, or in the forecast that’s driven by housing market data.

  • End with 1 final chart. We started w/ M2 chart showing the biggest y/y rise in history. The counterpoint is “what if velocity falls.” But vel is already @ record low. To drop, you need lower int rates (from 0?), or huge long-lasting cash-hoarding.Hard to see.

  • Thanks for tuning in. I’ll collate these in a single post in the next hour or so.

So what was most amazing about today’s data? I suppose it was that, outside of the things we knew would be disasters (airfares, hotels) the effects of the virus crisis were very small. And you know, that sort of makes sense. If I’m a producer of garden rakes (I honestly just pulled that out of the air), why would I change my prices? I’m not seeing traffic, but it isn’t because my prices are too high. From a seller’s perspective, it only makes sense to lower price if lower prices will induce more business. Lowering the price of rakes isn’t going to sell more rakes. It isn’t that people have no money to buy rakes – with the government fully replacing wages of laid off workers, and covering the wage costs for small businesses so they don’t need to lay anyone off, and sending everyone a fat check besides, there’s no shortage of people with money to spend. (I know we read a lot about the tragedy of the millions being laid off, but it’s not much of a tragedy yet since they’re being paid the same as before!)

[As an aside, businesses with high fixed overhead and low variable costs – hotels are a classic example; it costs very little for the second occupied guest room – might lower prices significantly since if they can cover their variable costs then anything above that goes to covering fixed overhead. That’s what airlines did initially too, but when they realized after that knee-jerk response that they couldn’t fill the planes even if they offered free flights, they started canceling enormous numbers of flights. I’ve actually seen some of the fares that I track rise in the last week or two as the number of flights out of NYC has dwindled to very few! But it’s harder to mothball a hotel than to mothball a plane.]

The NY Fed published a really insightful article today entitled “The Coronavirus Shock Looks More like a Natural Disaster than a Cyclical Downturn.” Although they focused on the path of unemployment claims, a similar analysis can take us to the inflation question. In a natural disaster, we don’t see deflation. If anything, we tend to see inflation as some goods get harder to acquire. The amount of money available doesn’t decline, assuming the government deploys an emergency response that includes covering non-insured losses, and the amount of goods available drops. In today’s circumstance, we have more money available – as the M2 chart shows – than we did before the crisis, and if anything we will have fewer things to buy when it’s all over as supply chains will remain disrupted for a long time and a lot of production will surely be re-onshored. But you don’t need the latter point to get disturbing inflation. All you need is for the money being created to get into circulation rather than reserves (which is what is happening, which is why M2 is soaring), and for precautionary money-hoarding to be a short-term phenomenon. I believe the money will be around long after the fear has died away, because for the Fed to drain a few trillion by selling massive quantities of bonds is much, much more difficult than to add a few trillion by buying bonds that the Treasury coincidentally needs to sell more of right now.

The quality of the CPI numbers will be sketchy for a while, but I am fairly impressed that this release wasn’t as messy as I was prepared for. The inflationary outcome may well be messy, though! With 14% money growth, and little reason to expect a lasting velocity decline, it’s hard to get an innocuous inflation outcome. But markets are still offering you inflation hedges at prices that imply you win even if inflation drops a fair amount from the current level. If you don’t have those hedges, you’re making a very big bet on deflation.

Happy Easter.

Last Time Was Different

April 4, 2020 5 comments

They say that the four most dangerous words in investing/finance/economics are “This time it’s different.”

And so why worry, the thinking goes, about massive quantitative easing and profound fiscal stimulus? “After all, we did it during the Global Financial Crisis and it didn’t stoke inflation. Why would you think that it is different this time? You shouldn’t: it didn’t cause inflation last time, and it won’t this time. This time is not different.”

That line of thinking, at some level, is right. This time is not different. There is not, indeed, any reason to think we will not get the same effects from massive stimulus and monetary accommodation that we have gotten every other time similar things have happened in history. Well, almost every time. You see, it isn’t this time that is different. It is last time that was different.

In 2008-10, many observers thought that the Fed’s unlimited QE would surely stoke massive inflation. The explosion in the monetary base was taken by many (including many in the tinfoil hat brigade) as a reason that we would shortly become Zimbabwe. I wasn’t one of those, because there were some really unique circumstances about that crisis.[1]

The Global Financial Crisis (GFC hereafter) was, as the name suggests, a financial crisis. The crisis began, ended, and ran through the banks and shadow banking system which was overlevered and undercapitalized. The housing crisis, and the garden-variety recession it may have brought in normal times, was the precipitating factor…but the fall of Bear Stearns and Lehman, IndyMac, and WaMu, and the near-misses by AIG, Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, Merrill, Goldman, Morgan Stanley, RBS (and I am missing many) were all tied to high leverage, low capital, and a fragile financial infrastructure. All of which has been exhaustively examined elsewhere and I won’t re-hash the events. But the reaction of Congress, the Administration, and especially the Federal Reserve were targeted largely to shoring up the banks and fixing the plumbing.

So the Federal Reserve took an unusual step early on and started paying Interest on Excess Reserves (IOER; it now is called simply Interest on Reserves or IOR in lots of places but I can’t break the IOER habit) as they undertook QE. That always seemed like an incredibly weird step to me if the purpose of QE was to get money into the economy: the Fed was paying banks to not lend, essentially. Notionally, what they were doing was shipping big boxes of money to banks and saying “we will pay you to not open these boxes.” Banks at the time were not only liquidity-constrained, they were capital-constrained, and so it made much more sense for them to take the riskless return from IOER rather than lending on the back of those reserves for modest incremental interest but a lot more risk. And so, M2 money supply never grew much faster than 10% y/y despite a massive increase in the Fed’s balance sheet. A 10% rate of money growth would have produced inflation, except for the precipitous fall in money velocity. As I’ve written a bunch of times (e.g. here, but if you just search for “velocity” or “real cash balances” on my blog you’ll get a wide sample), velocity is driven in the medium-term by interest rates, not by some ephemeral fear against which people hold precautionary money balances – which is why velocity plunged with interest rates during the GFC and remained low well after the GFC was over. The purpose of the QE in the Global Financial Crisis, that is, was banking-system focused rather than economy-focused. In effect, it forcibly de-levered the banks.

That was different. We hadn’t seen a general banking run in this country since the Great Depression, and while there weren’t generally lines of people waiting to take money out of their savings accounts, thanks to the promise of the FDIC, there were lines of companies looking to move deposits to safer banks or to hold Treasury Bills instead (Tbills traded to negative interest rates as a result). We had seen many recessions, some of them severe; we had seen market crashes and near-market crashes and failures of brokerage houses[2]; we even had the Savings and Loan crisis in the 1980s (and indeed, the post-mortem of that episode may have informed the Fed’s reaction to the GFC). But we never, at least since the Great Depression, had the world’s biggest banks teetering on total collapse.

I would argue then that last time was different. Of course every crisis is different in some way, and the massive GDP holiday being taken around the world right now is of course unprecedented in its rapidity if not its severity. It will likely be much more severe than the GFC but much shorter – kind of like a kick in the groin that makes you bend over but goes away in a few minutes.

But there is no banking crisis evident. Consequently the Fed’s massive balance sheet expansion, coupled with a relaxing of capital rules (e.g. see here, here and here), has immediately produced a huge spike in transactional money growth. M2 has grown at a 64% annualized rate over the last month, 25% annualized over the last 13 weeks, and 12.6% annualized over the last 52 weeks. As the chart shows, y/y money growth rates are already higher than they ever got during the GFC, larger than they got in the exceptional (but very short-term) liquidity provision after 9/11, and near the sorts of numbers we had in the early 1980s. And they’re just getting started.

Moreover, interest rates at the beginning of the GFC were higher (5y rates around 3%, depending when you look) and so there was plenty of room for rates, and hence money velocity, to decline. Right now we are already at all-time lows for M2 velocity and it is hard to imagine interest rates and velocity falling appreciably further (in the short-term there may be precautionary cash hoarding but this won’t last as long as the M2 will).  And instead of incentivizing banks to cling to their reserves, the Fed is actively using moral suasion to push banks to make loans (e.g. see here and here), and the federal government is putting money directly in the hands of consumers and small businesses. Here’s the thing: the banking system is working as intended. That’s the part that’s not at all different this time. It’s what was different last time.

As I said, there are lots of things that are unique about this crisis. But the fundamental plumbing is working, and that’s why I think that the provision of extraordinary liquidity and massive fiscal spending (essentially, the back-door Modern Monetary Theory that we all laughed about when it was mooted in the last couple of years, because it was absurd) seems to be causing the sorts of effects, and likely will cause the sort of effect on medium-term inflation, that will not be different this time.


[1] I thought that the real test would be when interest rates normalized after the crisis…which they never did. You can read about that thesis in my book, “What’s Wrong with Money,” whose predictions are now mostly moot.

[2] I especially liked “The Go-Go Years” by John Brooks, about the hard end to the 1960s. There’s a wonderful recounting in that book about how Ross Perot stepped in to save a cascading failure among stock brokerage houses.

Summary of My Post-CPI Tweets (March 2020)

Below is a summary of my post-CPI tweets. You can (and should!) follow me @inflation_guy. Or, sign up for email updates to my occasional articles here. Investors with interests in this area be sure to stop by Enduring Investments (updated site coming soon). Plus…buy my book about money and inflation. The title of the book is What’s Wrong with Money? The Biggest Bubble of All; order from Amazon here.

  • CPI day, coronavirus edition! Meaning that no matter what this month’s number is, next month’s number will be more “infected” and lots more interesting.
  • The consensus today is for core CPI to be a ‘soft’ +0.2%, with y/y core coming in at 2.3%.
  • Last month’s CPI figure was above expectations, but following a couple of weak months. Economists’ forecasts suggest they think the strength, not the weakness, was the outlier. I’m not so sure.
  • In last month’s CPI, core goods were weak, especially Used Cars and Pharmaceuticals. Both of those effects look to have recently reversed…altho question in both cases is whether it will be captured in the Feb number. Black Book figures have turned higher.
  • Important to note is the easy comparison of today’s CPI print to Feb 2019, which was only +0.127% core. So even a slightly strong 0.2% m/m could cause an uptick to 2.4% rounded on the y/y core.
  • Going forward, I’m really interested in housing, which has been resilient – if 10-year inflation markets are “right” at 1.0%, then Housing will have to collapse. I don’t see that.
  • And I think we are all more aware now that our supply chain of pharmaceuticals, specifically APIs, runs through China; efforts to bring back some drug manufacturing to the US will put upward pressure there.
  • That’s probably not this month’s story, but the Big Story to watch I think.
  • That’s all for now. 5 minutes to go…good luck with the number.
  • Well, core was +0.2% and the y/y was 2.4%, so that implies a strong core. But core figures being really slow to post to Bloomberg. That’s why the unnatural pause from me..
  • Weirdly getting entire breakdown except for core index level. Not sure if it’s a Bloomberg or a BLS issue but we’ll proceed. In any event looks like it was above 0.2% on core, and rounded down.
  • …and as I type that it comes in at +0.22%. That puts y/y core at 2.37%. That’s not QUITE the high for the cycle, but pretty close.
  • here is y/y core. I don’t see deflation yet, do you?

  • Last 12…the Oct and Dec figures looking more like the outliers.

  • Context for that. Here is the median CPI (which doesn’t come out until later) vs the 10y CPI swap rate. Clearly, market participants expect something big and negative.

  • Candidates for big and negative? It would have to be housing. But Owners’ Equivalent Rent this month was +0.246%. That’s softer than last month and the y/y fell to 3.28% from 3.35%…but not exactly weak.
  • Primary rents were unchanged y/y at 3.76%. Lodging Away from Home – to be sure, we ought to soon see that drop on the COVID-19 effect, was +2.03% m/m, but that only puts y/y at +0.78% from -0.21%. Lodging AFH hasn’t been a driver of inflation prints.
  • Now, possibly interesting, except that this is now a really volatile number, was the +0.43% jump in Apparel. China effect? Prob not yet. But y/y rose to -0.91% from -2.24% as recently as Oct. But the new survey method has made this volatile.
  • On Medical care – Pharma was -0.43% m/m, but that kept the y/y at 1.85% (was 1.80%). Last month Pharma was negative too. I’ll come back to drugs in a moment but Doctors’ Services rose to +0.83% y/y from +0.70% and Hospital Svcs to 4.28% from 3.84%.
  • Hospital Services y/y.

  • Recall 1 reason I’ve been expecting rise in Med Care is b/c insurance costs in the CPI have been soaring. But b/c of the way BLS measures insurance, as a residual, my hypothesis was that this was just proxying for stuff they hadn’t caught yet. But insurance STILL soaring!

  • So if I am right about the proxying effect, the recent rise in medical care pieces still leaves more to go.
  • I haven’t mentioned used cars yet. M/M used cars were +0.39%, moving y/y to -1.33% from -1.97%. The dip seems to be over. Recent surveys in last few weeks especially have seen surge in used car buying. Might be b/c auto manufacturing is having supply chain issues, or not.

  • Core CPI ex-housing rose to 1.70% y/y. That’s the highest level since Feb 2013. Again, I refer you to 10-year inflation breakevens, DOWN this morning to 0.99%. Just not seeing anything that even suggests a turn lower. Housing solid, and ex-housing at the highs.
  • …that doesn’t mean inflation can’t fall, and headline inflation in the near term is going to drop HARD because of energy, but to sell 10-year inflation at 1% you have to believe in more than an energy effect. Oil can’t fall 30% every month.
  • Again to sort of make the point that last month…while stronger than expected…was actually dragged LOWER by core goods: y/y core services stayed at 3.1%; y/y core goods rose to 0.0% vs -0.3% last month (but +0.1% month before).
  • One element of core goods is pharma. In the news recently b/c China supplies something like 90% of our APIs that go into drugs. This index has become lots more VOLATILE in recent yrs. Does that have anythng to do w/ the China part of supply chain becoming more important?

  • So biggest declining core categories this month: car/truck rental, misc personal goods, jewelry and watches. All down more than 10% annualized. Gainers: Lodging AFH, Women’s/Girls’ Apparel, Dairy (??), Personal Care Products. (Dairy not core, but unusual).
  • As if i didn’t already have enough reasons to give up ice cream. Here’s Dairy inflation, y/y. Come on, man.

  • Here is a little stealth inflation for you, although I suspect this will turn around. Here is y/y airfares, up at 2.35% y/y.

  • Why is that stealth inflation? Because airfares usually have a decent relationship to jet fuel. Except recently, they’ve been reluctant to fall. This is thru Feb since this is Feb CPI. Last point in red.

  • But here is jet fuel futures. This isn’t in CPI because consumers don’t buy jet fuel. Notice it was already declining in January and February before falling off a cliff this month. We OUGHT to be seeing this in airfares. Not yet, but soon.

  • last subcomponent pic today. This is college tuition & fees, y/y. This is going to start heading up unless the stock market starts to recover. When endowments take a beating, they share the pain.

  • Median CPI this month looks like it ought to be up around 0.26%ish. If that’s right, y/y median will be steady at 2.88% y/y.
  • Let’s see, why don’t we do the four pieces charts and then wrap up. Didn’t realize I’d been yammering for an hour.
  • Piece 1 is food & energy. Guess what: this is about to roll over, and hard. But it isn’t core, so it moves around a ton. We look through this volatility. Note the y axis scale!

  • Piece 2 is core goods. Back to roughly flat. Close to our model, but I’m still amazed this hasn’t seen more of an upswing yet with trade frictions. But I am pretty sure it will with COVID-19, because that’s a major supply shock and this is where it will tend to hit.

  • Still, of more concern is core services less rent-of-shelter. Significant weight here to medical care services, which as I showed earlier (see hospital services chart) is in a steady rise. Pharma shows up in core goods. The rest of medical shows up here.

  • Last but not least, rent of shelter. Solid as a rock. By the way, 10-year breakevens are down another 8bps today, to 0.95%. This makes zero sense. 1y CPI swaps? Different story. But 10y is nonsense.

  • Wrapping up: another stronger-than-expected number. I said last month that core CPI will be above 2.5% by summer, and we are still on track for that. COVID-19 might eventually pull prices lower if it becomes more demand shock than supply shock. We’re nowhere close to that now.
  • Of course, that doesn’t change the Fed’s decision. They’ll ease, aggressively. And the Federal government will spend like crazy. Folks, welcome to MMT. This is exactly what the MMT prescription is: deficit spend, and print money to cover it. We’ll see how it works out.
  • That’s all for today. Thanks for tuning in.

Nothing really further to add to this string of tweets. None of this stops the Fed from easing aggressively, but it wouldn’t have changed their decision much anyway because the Fed pretty much ignores inflation. But it should affect investment decisions. Really incredible to me is the way inflation bonds are underperforming so dramatically when they were already cheap and inflation is still rising. You have to be massively bearish, looking for a global collapse of monumental proportions, to want to sell 10-year inflation below 1% when housing is above 3% and ex-housing is at 7-year highs, and when the government is implementing MMT (effectively) and businesses are going to be under tremendous pressure to shorten supply chains and produce in higher-cost areas that are geographically safer/closer. It’s really hard to understand the TIPS market at the moment. (Some people say that it is always hard to understand the TIPS market!)

Categories: CPI, TIPS, Tweet Summary

Summary of My Post-CPI Tweets (February 2020)

February 13, 2020 1 comment

Below is a summary of my post-CPI tweets. You can (and should!) follow me @inflation_guy. Or, sign up for email updates to my occasional articles here. Investors with interests in this area be sure to stop by Enduring Investments (updated site coming soon). Plus…buy my book about money and inflation. The title of the book is What’s Wrong with Money? The Biggest Bubble of All; order from Amazon here.

  • Welcome to CPI day! Before we get started, note that at about 9:15ET I will be on @TDANetwork with @OJRenick to discuss the inflation figures etc. Tune in!
  • In leading up to today, let’s first remember that last month we saw a very weak +0.11% on core CPI. The drag didn’t seem to come from any one huge effect, but from a number of smaller effects.
  • The question of whether there was something odd with the holiday selling calendar, or something else, starts to be answered today (although I always admonish not to put TOO much weight on any single economic data point).
  • Consensus expectations call for +0.2% on core, but a downtick in y/y to 2.2% from 2.3%. That’s not wildly pessimistic b/c we are rolling off +0.24% from last January.
  • Next month, we have much easier comparisons on the y/y for a few months, so if we DO drop to 2.2% y/y on core today that will probably be the low for a little while. Feb 2019 was +0.11%, March was +0.15%, April was +0.14%, and May was +0.11%.
  • So this month we are looking to see if we get corrections of any of last month’s weakness. Are they one-offs? We are also going to specifically watch Medical Care, which has started to rise ominously.
  • One eye also on core goods, though this should stay under pressure from Used Cars more recent surveys have shown some life there. Possible upside surprise because low bar. Don’t expect Chinese virus effect yet, but will look for signs of it.
  • That’s all for now…good luck with the number!
  • Small upside surprise this month…core +0.24%, and y/y went up to 2.3% (2.27% actually).
  • We have changes in seasonal adjustment factors and annual and benchmark revisions to consumption weights this month…so numbers are rolling out slowly.
  • Well, core goods plunged to -0.3% y/y. A good chunk of that was because Used Cars dropped -1.2% this month, down -1.97% y/y.
  • Core services actually upticked to 3.1% y/y. So the breakdown here is going to be interesting.
  • Small bounce in Lodging Away from Home, which was -1.37% m/m last month. This month +0.18%, so no big effect. But Owners Equivalent Rent jumped +0.34% m/m, to 3.35% y/y from 3.27%. Primary Rents +0.36%, 3.76% y/y vs 3.69%. So that’s your increase in core services.
  • Medical Care +0.18% m/m, 4.5% y/y, roughly unchanged. Pharma fell -0.29% m/m after +1.25% last month, and y/y ebbed to 1.8% from 2.5%. That goes the other way on core goods. Also soft was doctors’ services, -0.38% m/m. But Hospital Services +0.75% m/m.
  • Apparel had an interesting-looking +0.66% m/m jump. But the y/y still decelerated to -1.26% from -1.12%.
  • Here is the updated Used Cars vs Black Book chart. You can see that the decline y/y is right on model. But should reverse some soon.

  • here is medicinal drugs y/y. You can see the small deceleration isn’t really a trend change.

  • Hospital Services…

  • Primary Rents…now, this and OER are worth watching. It had been looking like shelter costs were flattening out and possibly even decelerating a bit (not plunging into deflation though, never fear). This month is a wrinkle.

  • Core ex-housing 1.53% versus 1.55% y/y…so no big change there. The upward pressure on core today is mostly housing.
  • Whoops, just remembered that I hadn’t shown the last-12 months’ chart on core CPI. Note that the next 4 months are pretty easy comps. We’re going to see core CPI accelerate from 2.3%.

  • So worst (core) categories on the month were Used Cars and Trucks and Medical Care Commodities, which we’ve already discussed. Interesting. Oddly West Urban OER looks like it was down m/m although my seasonal adjustment there is a bit rough.
  • Biggest gainers: Miscellaneous Personal Goods, +41% annualized! Also jewelry, footwear, car & truck rental, and infants/toddlers’ apparel.
  • Oddly, it looks like median cpi m/m will be BELOW core…my estimate is +0.22% m/m. That’s curious – it means the long tails are more on the upside for a change.
  • Now, we care about tails. If all the tails start to shift to the high side, that’s a sign that the basic process is changing.
  • One characteristic of disinflation and lowflation…how it happens…is that prices are mostly stable with occasional price cuts. If instead we go to mostly stable prices with occasional price hikes, that’s an inflationary process. WAY too early to say that’s what’s happening.
  • Appliances (0.2% of CPI, so no big effect) took another big drop. Now -2.08% y/y. Wonder if this is a correction from tariff stuff.
  • Gotta go get ready for air. Last thing I will leave you with is this: remember the Fed has said they are going to ignore inflation for a while, until it gets significantly high for a persistent period. We aren’t there yet. Nothing to worry about from the Fed.

Because I had to go to air (thanks @OJRenick and @TDAmeritrade for another fun time) I gave a little short shrift on this CPI report. So let me make up for that a little bit. First, here’s a chart of core goods. I was surprised at the -0.3% y/y change, but it actually looks like this isn’t too far off – maybe just a little early, based on core import prices (see chart). Still, there has been a lot of volatility in the supply chain, starting with tariffs and now with novel coronavirus, with a lot of focus on the growth effects but not so much on the price effects.

It does remain astonishing to me that we haven’t seen more of a price impact from the de-globalization trends. Maybe there is some kind of ‘anchored inflation expectations’ effect? To be sure, it’s a little early to have seen the effect from the virus because ships which left before the contagion got started are still showing up at ports of entry. But I have to think that even if tariffs didn’t encourage a shortening of supply chains, this will. It does take time to approve new suppliers. Still I thought we’d see this effect already.

Let’s look at the four pieces charts. As a reminder, this is just a shorthand quartering of the consumption basket into roughly equal parts. Food & Energy is 20.5%; Core Goods is 20.1%; Rent of Shelter is 32.8%; and Core services less rent of shelter is 26.6%. From least-stable to most:

We have discussed core goods. Core Services less RoS is one that I am keeping a careful eye on – this is where medical care services falls, and those indices have been turning higher. Seeing that move above 3% would be concerning. The bottom chart shows the very stable Rents component. And here the story is that we had expected that to start rolling over a little bit – not deflating, but even backing off to 3% would be a meaningful effect. That’s what our model was calling for (see chart). But our model has started to accelerate again, so there is a real chance we might have already seen the local lows for core CPI.

I am not making that big call…I’d expected to see the local highs in the first half of 2020, and that could still happen (although with easy comps with last year, it wouldn’t be much of a retreat until later in the year). I’m no longer sure that’s going to happen. One of the reasons is that housing is proving resilient. But another reason is that liquidity is really surging, so that even with money velocity dripping lower again it is going to be hard to see prices fall. M2 growth in the US is above 7% y/y, and M2 growth in the Eurozone is over 6%. Liquidity is at least partly fungible when you have global banks, so we can’t just ignore what other central banks are doing. Over the last decade, sometimes US M2 was rising and sometimes EZ M2 was rising, but the last time we saw US>7% and EZ>6% was September 2008-May 2009. Before that, it happened in 2001-2003. So central banks are providing liquidity as if they are in crisis mode. And we’re not even in crisis mode.

That is an out-of-expectation occurrence. In other words, I did not see it coming that central banks would start really stepping on the gas when global growth was slowing, but still distinctly positive. We have really defined “crisis” down, haven’t we? And this isn’t a response to the virus – this started long before people in China started getting sick.

So, while core CPI is currently off its highs, it will be over 2.5% by summertime. Core PCE will be running up on the Fed’s 2% target, too. If the Fed maintains its easy stance even then, we will know they are completely serious about letting ‘er rip. I can’t imagine bond yields can stay at 2% in that environment.

Summary of My Post-CPI Tweets (January 2020)

January 14, 2020 3 comments

Below is a summary of my post-CPI tweets. You can (and should!) follow me @inflation_guy. Or, sign up for email updates to my occasional articles here. Investors with interests in this area be sure to stop by Enduring Investments or Enduring Intellectual Properties (updated sites coming soon). Plus…buy my book about money and inflation. The title of the book is What’s Wrong with Money? The Biggest Bubble of All; order from Amazon here.

  • The first CPI day of 2020! Although technically, this is the last print from the 20-teens.
  • The next decade ought to be very different from the last decade, from an inflation perspective. No more wondering if deflation is sneaking up on us, which is how 2010 began. I suspect we will spend more time worrying about how to put the inflation genie back in the bottle.
  • As the saying goes, letting the cat out of the bag is a heck of a lot easier than gettin’ him back in.
  • But let’s be more myopic for now: month on month. Consensus on core CPI is for +0.18% or so, which would keep y/y at 2.3% unchanged from last month.
  • To tick y/y core back to rounding to 2.4%, we only need 0.22% m/m on core CPI, so that’s more likely than the weakness we would need to see it tick down to 2.2%.
  • Last month in fact we saw 0.23%, which is right on the 6-month average core print. The only reason y/y is as low as it is, is because Feb-May last year were all 0.11-0.15% prints. Which is to say that the comps get easier starting in March (with Feb’s number).
  • Last month’s +0.23% came with softish housing, too. So there are some underlying upward pressures beyond housing. Medical Care has been getting the most attention so we will be attentive to any continued upward pressure there.
  • Also watch this month for an apparel bounce-back. Big drop last month, most likely due to the placement of Thanksgiving and the BLS’s new methodology which has induced lots of volatility to the series.
  • Downwardly, Used Cars remain a risk with private surveys showing softness there. And we’ll watch housing again. A sea change in housing would be a big deal. No real sign of that yet, and in fact housing has been running hotter than our forecasts by a tiny bit.
  • That’s all for now…good luck with the number. 5 minutes.
  • Weak CPI print, +0.11% on core…y/y just barely rounded up to 2.3% y/y. I said a downtick would be hard…but this was weak enough that it was very close.

  • Used Cars was quite weak, at +0.76% m/m, but that’s not super-surprising. The y/y at -0.68% (from -0.44%) is roughly in line.
  • Another usual suspect, Lodging Away from Home, plunged -1.75% m/m, putting the y/y to -0.28% from +3.26%. So a big, anti-seasonal move there. But LAfH is only 1% of CPI.
  • Overall housing was okay…OER +0.24% and Primary Rents +0.23% m/m, meaning that they upticked slightly y/y to 3.28% (vs 3.26%) and 3.69% (vs 3.66%) respectively. So it isn’t the big components there.
  • Yet Housing as a whole subgroup was only +0.10%. Was that all LAfH? Need to check.
  • Medical Care accelerated further, +0.57% m/m.

  • Medical care jump led by a large +1.25% m/m rise in Pharma (Medicinal Drugs).

  • The increases in the broad medical care components tends to support my prior suspicions that the big rise in CPI for health care insurance was a case of BLS not catching what was actually moving, so it appeared to show up in the insurance residual. That residual is still high…

  • Struggling finding anything (other than used cars and lodging away from home) that was really weak. Apparel was +0.40% m/m, so we got some of the bounceback. Recreation was a little weak, +0.15% m/m, and “Other” was -0.13% m/m…I need to dig deeper in housing though.
  • Overall core goods was steady at +0.10% y/y; overall core services was steady at +3.0% y/y. So no super clues there.
  • Here’s supporting chart for what I said about the weakness in Used Cars. Weak, but not surprisingly weak.

  • Well, in Housing…Shelter, which includes rents but also includes Lodging Away from Home, decelerated to 3.25% from 3.32% y/y. Fuels and Utilities is -0.23% y/y vs +0.74%. And Household Furnishings/Operations +0.98% vs 1.61%.
  • Looks like major appliances were heavy, down 1% m/m or so. But we’re talking a pretty small weight.
  • So biggest m/m decliners (and annualized changes) were Lodging AfH (-19.1%), Public Transport (-16.3%), Car and Truck Rental (-14.7%), and Personal Care Products (-12.9%). Cumulatively that’s only 2.8% of the CPI, but big changes.
  • Biggest m/m gainers aren’t in core: Motor Fuel (+39.6%) and Fuel Oil/Other Fuels (+27.4%). Medical Care Commodities (drugs) were +19.3%, and are in core, but as we have seen probably not a one-off. Then Meat, Poultry, Fish, and Eggs (can we just call this “protein?”) +16.7%.
  • So we’re talking about a lot of left-tail things in core especially. Median looks to be over 0.2% again, though a little hard to say because one of the regional OERs looks like the median category. But y/y Median CPI should stay roughly steady at 2.92% is my guess.
  • So core ex-shelter dropped a bit to 1.55% from 1.61% y/y. Still well off the lows. But if these left-tail one-offs are really one-offs, we would expect to see that rebound next month. Bottom line though is that 1.55% from non-housing isn’t very alarming yet.
  • To kinda state the obvious, nothing here will have the slightest impact on the Fed. They’ve basically said they don’t care about inflation at these levels. “Wake me when it hits 3% on core PCE, then hit the snooze button for a year.”
  • “In order to move rates up, I would want to see inflation that’s persistent and that’s significant. A significant move up in inflation that’s also persistent before raising rates to address inflation concerns: That’s my view.” – Powell, Dec 11 2019
  • Let’s look at the four pieces charts in order from most-volatile to least. First, Food and Energy.

  • Second, Core goods. This includes pharma, but also used cars, so right now the cars are beating drugs. (Don’t drink and drive, kids.)

  • Core Services less Rent of Shelter. Now, this month overall was weak but this is starting to look more concerning thanks to Medical Care. I think we might be seeing this over 3% before long, given the signals from health care.

  • And 4th piece: rent of shelter. So, flip side of the other core services is that rents might be softening..but at least aren’t showing an urgency to accelerate further. This was the reason I thought we’d see core peak in the 1st part of this year. I’m no longer confident.

  • Ever feel like inflation was giving you the finger? Here is the distribution of price changes. The big one in the middle is OER. The one at the far right is gasoline. You can see there are a lot of left tail events still.

  • Last one. Same data as the last chart, but this just sums all the categories over 3% y/y inflation. Obviously, when this goes over 50%, median is at least 3%. Because of rents, this is going to be close to 50%…but enough other categories are starting to scooch it there.

  • Scooch being a technical term.
  • OK, that’s all for today. The summary is that while the monthly number was soft, the underlying pressures are if anything getting a little firmer. Of course, the summary if you’re on the FOMC is, “CPI came out today? Really?”

As I said, nothing here will affect the Fed, at least for a while. I am sure some of them still pay attention to the CPI but they’ve made very clear that the only way inflation would affect monetary policy is if it went a lot higher, or a little bit lower. It may go a lot higher, but it won’t get there quickly. And core PCE, which is what the Fed supposedly focuses on (insider tip: they focus on whichever index is confirming their thesis), is more likely to accelerate from here since it overweights medical care – which is now trending higher – and underweights housing – which is looking soft – compared to private consumption. So, write off the Fed.

However, the “cyclical” ebbing of inflationary pressures that I had been expecting in Q1-Q2, mainly because I expected more softening in rents and I thought bond yields would be declining more in reaction to the slowdown in growth, aren’t apparent. It looks as if inflation might peak later than I had expected. Now, I never thought such a peak would mean inflation rolls over and goes to the lows of the last recession. Absent another collapse in housing, which does not appear to be in the offing, that isn’t going to happen. I thought inflation would stage a small retreat and then move to new highs when rates headed back up again. So far, though, I don’t even see much reason to think the peak is about to happen. Yes, rents are squishier than they were but it appears that medical care is moving fairly aggressively higher and interest rates don’t appear to be responding to the global slowdown in growth. So we might well be looking at a recession where inflation doesn’t slow very much.

In any event, the Fed’s response function make potential tail events a mostly one-way affair right now. They’ve warned you. Take appropriate precautions – which is relatively easy now as most inflation hedges (exception precious metals) are quite cheap!

Summary of My Post-CPI Tweets (December 2019)

December 11, 2019 Leave a comment

Below is a summary of my post-CPI tweets. You can (and should!) follow me @inflation_guy. Or, sign up for email updates to my occasional articles here. Investors with interests in this area be sure to stop by Enduring Investments or Enduring Intellectual Properties (updated sites coming soon). Plus…buy my book about money and inflation. The title of the book is What’s Wrong with Money? The Biggest Bubble of All; order from Amazon here.

  • Okay, about 10 minutes to CPI showtime so let’s review last month.
  • We have had a couple of soft prints (<0.2% before rounding, one all the way to 0.1%, on core), but those followed 3 months of 0.3% monthly core prints. This month, consensus is for a soft 0.2% on core, something around 0.18%.
  • last month, we saw weak core goods, a lot of that being vehicles and NOT surprising but general softness outside of vehicles mildly surprising.
  • the bigger surprise was in housing, where Lodging Away from Home was very soft and both Primary and Owners’ Equivalent Rents were soft. That was the main story from last month.
  • But of course we are also watching Medical Care carefully. The prior rise in Medical Insurance inflation, because of the way the BLS measures, might (or might not) be a proxy for as-yet-unsurveyed strength in other medical subcomponents.
  • Those other medical care subcomponents HAVE been seeing some recent strength. So Core-Services-ex-Rents is something we are very interested in.
  • Two other points. The first is that November had a very late Thanksgiving, so depending on when retailers adjusted prices for the retail season (generally lowering them) and when the survey mostly happened, there could be some seasonal volatility.
  • If they did not lower their prices as early in the month, because Black Friday was later, that COULD mean we see strength that’s not seasonally expected. Don’t know but something to keep in mind. Built-in caveat for today.
  • Second point is: the Fed doesn’t care. Powell says they’re not going to tighten unless inflation goes significantly higher and stays there a long time. So, you’re on your own!
  • That’s all – grab a coffee and see you in 3 min.
  • 2% on core, but stronger than expected…really 0.23% before rounding. Y/Y core stays at 2.32%
  • Here are the last 12 core prints. Funny how one print can make the whole chart look more ominous.

  • OK, first housing. Lodging Away from Home was +1.1% m/m after -3.84% last month, so as-expected bounce. Primary Rents were +0.26% vs 0.14% last mo and OER was +0.24% vs +0.18%. So softness was not repeated in housing.
  • That said, the y/y figures in housing still declined, with Primary going to 3.66% vs 3.74% and OER 3.26% vs 3.31% prior. So those are big effects holding down y/y core. But core was unchanged y/y. So where were the gains?
  • I should say those are the effects holding down further acceleration in core. Drippy housing means th other parts need to pick up the slack.
  • Some of that is Medical Care. This month overall Medical Care CPI was +0.32% m/m, 4.24% y/y. That’s with soft Pharma CPI, -0.16% m/m and a scant 0.58% y/y.
  • You can see Pharma is still rising, this is y/y.

  • Doctors’ Services and Hospital Services also softer this month than last, but not huge.
  • Core Goods overall slumped to +0.1% y/y from 0.8% just a few months ago. This month, the weakness in pharma helped but the y/y for Used Cars also fell to -0.44% from +1.43% previously. Expected some weakness, but that might be a bit overdone.
  • Here is core commodities vs lagged import prices. Not super surprising that it is slowing.

  • Core inflation ex-shelter basically unchanged, at 1.61% vs 1.60%.
  • Unfortunately having some computer “issues” that is preventing my usual deeper dive in some of these categories.
  • Oh, Apparel -2.29% y/y vs -0.34%. Again, the BLS’s new survey methodology is introducing IMO a lot of extra volatility in this series.
  • Well, found the computer issue but it’s really that the BLS posted the subcomponents a little later than usual today. Won’t be fixed in the next few minutes and I have to go meet clients in Minneapolis. So I’ll wrap it up, a little short this month – sorry.
  • I think the bottom line is that there isn’t anything super surprising here. The softness we had seen in housing took at least a temporary hiatus. Overall core was stronger than expected, but hard to be sure that’s meaningful.
  • As I said up top, there’s no real reason to think that the Fed cares…so from a markets perspective, TODAY and this month, these numbers don’t mean much. Except for you, because the Fed isn’t going to try and restrain inflation so you better make sure you’re prepared.

Late post of today’s summary, since I had customer meetings during the day. Up above, I sort of flippantly commented about how the chart of monthly changes looks totally different when you add the latest point. I’m always fascinated about examples like this. Clearly, we didn’t add 12 monthly points, but only one today. So there is no more information in that chart than we had new today – what happens is that we change the context a little bit. Prior to today’s figure, the question was “are the three high numbers the aberration, or are the last two points an aberration from a higher trend?” The latest point makes it seem more likely that the two low ones are the aberration, but I’d be cautious about reading too much into that. First, there’s a ton of noise in any economic series. Second, I mentioned in my walk-up to the number in the bullet points above that there’s some chance the late Thanksgiving could result in a higher-than-expected CPI if retailers lowered their prices for the Christmas season later than normal. And third, there wasn’t anything super-alarming about this data.

By the same token, “nothing super-alarming” could also be read as “no big outliers, just a generally faster pace of inflation.” So if you’re bullish on inflation, you might read the composition that way. Moreover, it should be pointed out that while the consensus forecast was for +0.2% on core CPI, and we got +0.2%, there was actually a pretty decent miss: the consensus was more like +0.18% before rounding up, and core CPI was +0.23% before rounding down. Economists were further off than they appear to be if you just look at the rounded figures.

My view continues to be that inflation ought to peak early next year, but that the cyclical low won’t be that low. However, I am becoming a bit less confident that the peak is that near, especially given how Medical Care is behaving. The key point though is the last one I raised today. The Fed has changed the rules of the game…or I guess a better analogy is that it has changed which team it is playing for in a very vocal way. It is one thing for the Fed to say “we want inflation higher and are going to push it higher,” which implies a level of control (to be sure, it is control they don’t actually have), but something else entirely to say “we really don’t care if it goes up,” which implies abdication of responsibility for the results. Investors should beware of this. I don’t think it is the small thing it sounds like.

Categories: CPI, Tweet Summary
%d bloggers like this: